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Quasar Tropfler

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Bibcode : Sci Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. Astronomical Society of the Pacific. Bibcode : ASPC.. Superluminal radio sources; Proceedings of the Workshop, Pasadena, Calif.

Cambridge University Press. Bibcode : slrs. Ros; R. Porcas; A. Lobanov; J. Zensus eds. Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie.

Bibcode : evn.. AIP Conference Proceedings. Bibcode : AIPC.. W The New York Times. Graham; S. Drake; Ashish A. Nature published 7 January The Times of India.

Press Trust of India. Retrieved 6 April June Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific. Bibcode : PASP.. The Astronomical Journal. Bibcode : AJ I; Eroshenko, Yu.

N; Rubin, S. G July December PennState Eberly College of Science. Archived from the original on 21 November August Third Data Release". The Astrophysical Journal Letters.

Science Journal. Eberly College of Science, PennState. Summer Archived from the original on 12 September January D; et al.

M; McMahon, R. I - the Z greater than 4 objects". Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. J; Hewett, P. C; Osmer, P. S; Irwin, M. J A Bibcode : Ap Reports on Progress in Physics.

Bibcode : RPPh B Astrophysics and Space Science. Longair Schucking eds. The University of Chicago. University of Chicago Press.

Bibcode : qssg. The Observatory. Because the nature of these objects is entirely unknown, it is hard to prepare a short, appropriate nomenclature for them so that their essential properties are obvious from their name.

For convenience, the abbreviated form "quasar" will be used throughout this paper. Between and , it became clear from work by Heber Curtis , Ernst Öpik and others, that some objects " nebulae " seen by astronomers were in fact distant galaxies like our own.

But when radio astronomy commenced in the s, astronomers detected, among the galaxies, a small number of anomalous objects with properties that defied explanation.

The objects emitted large amounts of radiation of many frequencies, but no source could be located optically, or in some cases only a faint and point-like object somewhat like a distant star.

The spectral lines of these objects, which identify the chemical elements of which the object is composed, were also extremely strange and defied explanation.

Some of them changed their luminosity very rapidly in the optical range and even more rapidly in the X-ray range, suggesting an upper limit on their size, perhaps no larger than our own Solar System.

They were described as "quasi-stellar [meaning: star-like] radio sources" , or "quasi-stellar objects" QSOs , a name which reflected their unknown nature, and this became shortened to "quasar".

Using small telescopes and the Lovell Telescope as an interferometer, they were shown to have a very small angular size. In , a definite identification of the radio source 3C 48 with an optical object was published by Allan Sandage and Thomas A.

Astronomers had detected what appeared to be a faint blue star at the location of the radio source and obtained its spectrum, which contained many unknown broad emission lines.

The anomalous spectrum defied interpretation. British-Australian astronomer John Bolton made many early observations of quasars, including a breakthrough in Measurements taken by Cyril Hazard and John Bolton during one of the occultations using the Parkes Radio Telescope allowed Maarten Schmidt to find a visible counterpart to the radio source and obtain an optical spectrum using the inch 5.

This spectrum revealed the same strange emission lines. Schmidt was able to demonstrate that these were likely to be the ordinary spectral lines of hydrogen redshifted by Although it raised many questions, Schmidt's discovery quickly revolutionized quasar observation.

Shortly afterwards, two more quasar spectra in and five more in were also confirmed as ordinary light that had been redshifted to an extreme degree.

An extreme redshift could imply great distance and velocity but could also be due to extreme mass or perhaps some other unknown laws of nature. Extreme velocity and distance would also imply immense power output, which lacked explanation.

The small sizes were confirmed by interferometry and by observing the speed with which the quasar as a whole varied in output, and by their inability to be seen in even the most powerful visible-light telescopes as anything more than faint starlike points of light.

But if they were small and far away in space, their power output would have to be immense and difficult to explain. Equally, if they were very small and much closer to our galaxy, it would be easy to explain their apparent power output, but less easy to explain their redshifts and lack of detectable movement against the background of the universe.

Schmidt noted that redshift is also associated with the expansion of the universe, as codified in Hubble's law. If the measured redshift was due to expansion, then this would support an interpretation of very distant objects with extraordinarily high luminosity and power output, far beyond any object seen to date.

This extreme luminosity would also explain the large radio signal. He stated that a distant and extremely powerful object seemed more likely to be correct.

Schmidt's explanation for the high redshift was not widely accepted at the time. A major concern was the enormous amount of energy these objects would have to be radiating, if they were distant.

In the s no commonly accepted mechanism could account for this. The currently accepted explanation, that it is due to matter in an accretion disc falling into a supermassive black hole , was only suggested in by Edwin Salpeter and Yakov Zel'dovich , [23] and even then it was rejected by many astronomers, because in the s, the existence of black holes was still widely seen as theoretical and too exotic, and because it was not yet confirmed that many galaxies including our own have supermassive black holes at their center.

The strange spectral lines in their radiation, and the speed of change seen in some quasars, also suggested to many astronomers and cosmologists that the objects were comparatively small and therefore perhaps bright, massive and not far away; accordingly that their redshifts were not due to distance or velocity, and must be due to some other reason or an unknown process, meaning that the quasars were not really powerful objects nor at extreme distances, as their redshifted light implied.

A common alternative explanation was that the redshifts were caused by extreme mass gravitational redshifting explained by general relativity and not by extreme velocity explained by special relativity.

Various explanations were proposed during the s and s, each with their own problems. It was suggested that quasars were nearby objects, and that their redshift was not due to the expansion of space special relativity but rather to light escaping a deep gravitational well general relativity.

This would require a massive object, which would also explain the high luminosities. However, a star of sufficient mass to produce the measured redshift would be unstable and in excess of the Hayashi limit.

One strong argument against them was that they implied energies that were far in excess of known energy conversion processes, including nuclear fusion.

There were some suggestions that quasars were made of some hitherto unknown form of stable antimatter regions and that this might account for their brightness.

Eventually, starting from about the s, many lines of evidence including the first X-ray space observatories , knowledge of black holes and modern models of cosmology gradually demonstrated that the quasar redshifts are genuine and due to the expansion of space , that quasars are in fact as powerful and as distant as Schmidt and some other astronomers had suggested, and that their energy source is matter from an accretion disc falling onto a supermassive black hole.

This model also fits well with other observations suggesting that many or even most galaxies have a massive central black hole.

It would also explain why quasars are more common in the early universe: as a quasar draws matter from its accretion disc, there comes a point when there is less matter nearby, and energy production falls off or ceases, as the quasar becomes a more ordinary type of galaxy.

The accretion-disc energy-production mechanism was finally modeled in the s, and black holes were also directly detected including evidence showing that supermassive black holes could be found at the centers of our own and many other galaxies , which resolved the concern that quasars were too luminous to be a result of very distant objects or that a suitable mechanism could not be confirmed to exist in nature.

By it was "well accepted" that this was the correct explanation for quasars, [31] and the cosmological distance and energy output of quasars was accepted by almost all researchers.

Hence the name "QSO" quasi-stellar object is used in addition to "quasar" to refer to these objects, further categorised into the "radio-loud" and the "radio-quiet" classes.

The discovery of the quasar had large implications for the field of astronomy in the s, including drawing physics and astronomy closer together.

It is now known that quasars are distant but extremely luminous objects, so any light that reaches the Earth is redshifted due to the metric expansion of space.

This radiation is emitted across the electromagnetic spectrum, almost uniformly, from X-rays to the far infrared with a peak in the ultraviolet optical bands, with some quasars also being strong sources of radio emission and of gamma-rays.

With high-resolution imaging from ground-based telescopes and the Hubble Space Telescope , the "host galaxies" surrounding the quasars have been detected in some cases.

Quasars are believed—and in many cases confirmed—to be powered by accretion of material into supermassive black holes in the nuclei of distant galaxies, as suggested in by Edwin Salpeter and Yakov Zel'dovich.

The energy produced by a quasar is generated outside the black hole, by gravitational stresses and immense friction within the material nearest to the black hole, as it orbits and falls inward.

Central masses of 10 5 to 10 9 solar masses have been measured in quasars by using reverberation mapping. Several dozen nearby large galaxies, including our own Milky Way galaxy, that do not have an active center and do not show any activity similar to a quasar, are confirmed to contain a similar supermassive black hole in their nuclei galactic center.

Thus it is now thought that all large galaxies have a black hole of this kind, but only a small fraction have sufficient matter in the right kind of orbit at their center to become active and power radiation in such a way as to be seen as quasars.

This also explains why quasars were more common in the early universe, as this energy production ends when the supermassive black hole consumes all of the gas and dust near it.

This means that it is possible that most galaxies, including the Milky Way, have gone through an active stage, appearing as a quasar or some other class of active galaxy that depended on the black-hole mass and the accretion rate, and are now quiescent because they lack a supply of matter to feed into their central black holes to generate radiation.

The matter accreting onto the black hole is unlikely to fall directly in, but will have some angular momentum around the black hole, which will cause the matter to collect into an accretion disc.

Quasars may also be ignited or re-ignited when normal galaxies merge and the black hole is infused with a fresh source of matter. In the s, unified models were developed in which quasars were classified as a particular kind of active galaxy , and a consensus emerged that in many cases it is simply the viewing angle that distinguishes them from other active galaxies, such as blazars and radio galaxies.

More than quasars have been found [45] , most from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. All observed quasar spectra have redshifts between 0.

Applying Hubble's law to these redshifts, it can be shown that they are between million [46] and Because of the great distances to the farthest quasars and the finite velocity of light, they and their surrounding space appear as they existed in the very early universe.

The power of quasars originates from supermassive black holes that are believed to exist at the core of most galaxies.

The Doppler shifts of stars near the cores of galaxies indicate that they are rotating around tremendous masses with very steep gravity gradients, suggesting black holes.

Although quasars appear faint when viewed from Earth, they are visible from extreme distances, being the most luminous objects in the known universe.

It has an average apparent magnitude of In a universe containing hundreds of billions of galaxies, most of which had active nuclei billions of years ago but only seen today, it is statistically certain that thousands of energy jets should be pointed toward the Earth, some more directly than others.

In many cases it is likely that the brighter the quasar, the more directly its jet is aimed at the Earth. Such quasars are called blazars. Quasars were much more common in the early universe than they are today.

This discovery by Maarten Schmidt in was early strong evidence against Steady-state cosmology and in favor of the Big Bang cosmology.

You're not alone. There's a component for almost every web development need out there. Each of these components are carefully crafted to offer the best possible experience to your users.

Quasar is designed with performance and responsiveness in mind — so the overhead of using Quasar is barely noticeable.

This is an area we take special pride in. Quasar developers are encouraged to follow web development best practices, and Quasar comes with many embedded features to that regard out of the box.

Quasar takes care of all these and more - no configuration needed. RTL right to left support for both Quasar components and developer's own code.

There's more than 40 Quasar language packs available. If your desired language pack is missing it takes just 5 minutes to add it.

It's worth mentioning the significant amount of time that is spent on writing great, bloat-free, focused, complete documentation pages so you as a developer can quickly pick up Quasar.

The name comes from the shape of the extended emission, which is shaped like the handle of a teacup. The handle is a bubble shaped by quasar winds or small-scale radio jets.

Originally discovered as 3 lensed images, the fourth image is faint. It was the second gravitationally lensed quasar discovered.

RX J is the name of the complex, quasar, host galaxy and lensing galaxy, together. The quasar's host galaxy is also lensed into a Chwolson ring about the lensing galaxy.

The four images of the quasar are embedded in the ring image. Brightest known high-redshift source of CO emission [3]. The current largest-separatioon quasar lens with First sextuply-lensed galaxy [10] Third quasar discovered to be lensed by a galaxy cluster.

First quasar quartet discovered. First quasar triplet discovered. It was first discovered as a binary quasar , before the third quasar was found.

Originally thought to be a doubly imaged quasar, but actually a quasar couplet. First LQG discovered. At the time of its discovery, it was the largest structure known.

Huge-LQG U1. The largest structure known in the observable universe , as of First quasar discovered with superluminal jets.

Fifth discovered, first with double lobes [29]. This is also the first quasar ever identified. PKS They also had spectra and redshifts like radio-loud quasi-stellar radio-sources QSR , so became quasars.

Also the most powerful radio source in the sky. Found June [47] [48]. Currently the most distant known quasar.

Former most distant quasar. First quasar with redshift over 7. Former most distant quasar [53] [54] [55] [56]. Former most distant quasar [57] [58] [59] [56] [60] [61].

First quasar with redshift over 6. SDSS J Most distant radio-quasar [47] [68]. For reference [61]. For reference [65] [66] [67].

Current record holder. This was not the most distant object when discovered. This was the first quasar found beyond redshift 7. Also discovered around the time of discovery was a new most distant galaxy, SDF J This was the most distant object when discovered.

This was the first object beyond redshift 6 when discovered. This was the most distant object discovered at the time of discovery. This was not the most distant object discovered at time of discovery.

SDSSp J This was the first quasar discovered breaking redshift 5. This was the most distant object discovered at time of discovery. Q QSO B This was the second quasar discovered with a redshift over 4.

Q— QSO J First quasar discovered with a redshift over 4. This is also a gravitationally-lensed double-image quasar, and at the time of discovery to , had the least angular separation between images, 0.

First quasar discovered with a redshift greater than 3. Nickname was "the blaze marking the edge of the universe". Its redshift was so much greater than the previous record that it was believed to be erroneous, or spurious.

This was the most distant object when it was discovered. This was the first quasar with a redshift in excess of 2.

This was the first quasar to become the most distant object in the universe, beating radio galaxy 3C Redshift was discovered after publication of 3C's results prompted researchers to re-examine spectroscopic data.

This was the second quasar redshift measured. This not the most distant object discovered at the time of discovery.

First redshift identified for a quasar. This was not the most distant object discovered at the time of discovery.

SMSS J Quasar is designed with performance and responsiveness in mind — so the overhead of using Quasar is barely noticeable. This is an area we take special pride in.

Quasar developers are encouraged to follow web development best practices, and Quasar comes with many embedded features to that regard out of the box.

Quasar takes care of all these and more - no configuration needed. RTL right to left support for both Quasar components and developer's own code.

There's more than 40 Quasar language packs available. If your desired language pack is missing it takes just 5 minutes to add it.

It's worth mentioning the significant amount of time that is spent on writing great, bloat-free, focused, complete documentation pages so you as a developer can quickly pick up Quasar.

We are always paranoid about the security of Quasar and the security of apps built with Quasar. We are on a constant lookout to inform you about any security threats that you might need to know about.

We have Security guidelines and we are even offering our security expertise through the Quasar Audit program. Allan Gaunt. Scott Molinari. Media Manager.

Manages our Facebook page, blog and forum. Helps with docs, bug reports, external systems, writes and manages articles and offers community support.

Paolo Caleffi. Senior developer. Aldrin Marquez. Community Staff.

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